The catastrophe of Mauritius

On the 25th of July 2020, a Japanese bulk carrier, carrying an estimated 4000 tonnes of oil, has run on a coral reef of the coast of Mauritius island. After nearly a month of investigation and responses, it is time we give our say and analyze this threat, as always, together.

The island

Mauritius is a peninsular state in the Indian Ocean, off the east coast of Madagascar. It is an essential hotspot for biodiversity, as it is often the case for remote places that experienced a sort of isolated evolution: in distant lands, different species faced different struggles than their counterparts on the mainland, and so animals and plants surviving there present fascinating and unique traits.

Mauritius island is famous in the Bollywood industry, providing heavenly spots for movies of all kind. Such a remote and beautiful place relies heavily (if not completely) on tourism: breath-taking lagoons, mountains, rain forest are offered to millions that each year decide to step back from city life and enjoy a well-deserved break.

The position of the island makes it logistically useful to the commercial and touristic traffic in the Indian Ocean that, in certain periods of the year, becomes busy. On a normal day of a typical year, when everyone on the island was enjoying the quiet of what they call winter (which is approximately 20 ℃ on average) and the quiet from seasonal storms, occurring between January and March, the worst nightmare suddenly became real: an estimated 4000 tonnes of oil were released in the sea, as a result of a ship accident.

What happened

And from then on, as if a global pandemic was not enough already, a shitstorm has hit everyone involved, curses over curses, lectures over lectures.

This website aims to provide scientific news from an objective point of view: this is because we need to be loyal the main principle of science, which is that you can’t really have an opinion, everything has to be confirmed.

I live many thousands of miles away from Mauritius, and I don’t know anyone living or visiting at the moment, so I had to stay in the loop with the daily news emerging in newspapers and social media. FIltering anger and subjectiveness was not easy at all, but here is the most objective report of what happened and the possible consequences for the ecosystem.

25th  of July 2020: A Japanese bulk carrier ran over a coral reef and got stuck in the Blue Marin Park, a heritage site extremely important for marine life in the are, and started sinking.

A French team, in cooperation with local authorities and a Japanese team, was able to remove the remaining oil in the tank of the sinking ship. There were no casualties as a result of the accident and neither as a result of the extraction of the oil in the tank.

On the 13th of August 2020, the sinking ship broke in two, as expected. The government of the island declared that it will seek compensation from the owner of the ship and the insurer, positive signals are coming from the Japanese firm.

What will happen

It is now time to talk about the environment, which is the main affected part here. What does an oil spillage do to the marine ecosystem? Sadly, we do have the answer because it is not the first time that this happened.

Also, this episode seems to be more threatening to marine life because it happened near the coast on a coral reef, which is a perfect habitat for plankton and a great chunk of fish species (nearly 25% of them). Previous and famous spillage, as bad as this one, happened offshore, and so even though the amount of oil released in some cases was much higher, the net impact on life was lower, simply because there was less life.

If we also consider that, in this period of the year, it seems that currents are favourable for fishes to station in the marine park before embarking on a new voyage across the oceans, we soon realise what a big mess we made.

I say we as if I was part of the accident because I am, we all are. This is not only the result of a human mistake of the captain, this is the result of our society. By principle, we should not allow any ship of that dimension to sail less than 50 miles off the coasts of such fragile ecosystems. If we do, there is no reason to shout out loud once the worst happen. Ocean routes should be revisited, supply chains should reinforce commercial exchange with Madagascar that can be reached via speedboat, not with Australia or any other Asian country west of Mauritius.

I don’t want to make any claim about learning from this catastrophe: it is not the first one and it won’t be the last one, we are still at war for religious purposes after millennia so imagine if we are any closer to learn that we just need to learn to be empathic towards the Earth.

It has been a sad month, for all of us. Like always, I saw many posts, tweets, stories, crowdfunding: admirable, but they all vanished into my home feed, surpassed by the picture of your holidays, football news and some suggestions to buy something that 5 minutes before I didn’t know I wanted.

Last week summary

10 – 16 August

Warm weather, as well as thunderstorms, has brought large groups of jellyfish near the British coasts. There have been many sights all over the country and in Ireland. The reason why this year they seem to be more abundant could be related to the increased number of plankton on which they feed on. Also, it could be that we are getting more reports from people this year because of furlough and local holidays. Different opinions and species are analyzed in The Guardian’s article of this good year for jellyfish.

Read the article -> Link.

It’s almost time: on the 1st of January 2021, the United Kingdom will cease to be part of the European Union, meaning that they will not longer be bound to EU laws and subject to the EU court of Justice, as well as leaving the Common Agricultural Policy and the Common Fisheries Policy. Brexit was presented and proposed for making the UK better, not worse, and so in 2018 Greener UK has made 4 benchmarks to evaluate a Green Brexit.

Read the article -> Link.

Greenpeace has conducted an investigation and came to the conclusion that in the first six months of 2020 intensive fishing vessels “have spent 5,590 hours fishing in marine protected areas in UK waters”. None of the vessels is UK-owned and Greenpeace is calling on the ban of these 100m long supertrawlers, capable of carrying thousands of tonnes of fish, from protected marine areas.

Read the article -> Link.

I would link to conclude with a controversial article about how plastic could lead to a sustainable future. In another post, we talked about the benefits and potential of Polyethylene over virgin paper. In this article it is explained from a theoretic point of view the advantages of all the polymers, 100% recyclable, and what is the real problem with plastic.

Read the article ->Link.

The importance of butterflies

The 2020 Big Butterfly Count has come to an end on the 9th August. What a better moment to find out the ecological role played by this beautiful insect, if not now? Let’s find out, as always, together.

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

The life cycle

I have always been impressed and fascinated by the life cycle of butterflies. Their growth happens throughout four stages, during which the soon-to-be butterfly will undergo some sort of transformation, scientifically called metamorphosis.

Everything starts with an adult butterfly laying down eggs. Once the egg breaks, what comes out is a caterpillar, an insect very similar to worms. Caterpillars spend most of their time foraging leaves and storing energy needed to undergo the next stage.

Once they’re ready and well-fed, caterpillars look for the perfect spot (a leave or a twig) to hang themselves upside down and cover themselves with a silky layer, entering the phase of the cocoon. It is at this stage that the magic happens. To transform into a butterfly or a moth, caterpillars don’t simply grow wings and antennas: they decompose all their body tissues, resulting in something that resembles a broth in the middle stage. Subsequently, the cells are re-assembled to form the many parts of the adult butterfly (wings, antennas, body, genitals etc). Once this process is over, the butterfly breaks out from the cocoon and fly out as beautiful as they can be. Some studies suggest that butterfly have memories of their caterpillar stage but nothing has been confirmed yet. It is also very hard to observe the broth-stage of caterpillar because if you were to break a cocoon too early, you will literally see a liquid insect pour down from it.

However, even though it is not easy to observe the cocoon stage, we know what happens inside. The caterpillar digests himself, releasing enzymes that decompose his body tissues. Some management cells, known as imaginal discs, survive this process and are in charge of reassembling the body cells into a butterfly. Some studies show that after the digestion phase, only 50 imaginal discs are left alive and functioning: once they complete their task, a fully developed butterfly has more than 50 000 cells!

Illustration of the life cycle of a butterfly: egg, caterpillar, cocoon, butterfly.

After looking at the unbelievable life cycle of butterflies, it is now time to understand what they do and what their presence can tell us.

For some reasons, butterflies play a similar role to bees for ecosystems. They are very efficient pollinators. Considering the dropping numbers in the bee population and that nearly 90% of plants need a pollinator to reproduce, it is clear that the role of these insects is still vital to the ecosystem. Also, butterflies are a very efficient pollinator, contributing to the genetic variation of plants. This happens because rather than staying close to the nest as bees do, butterflies cover a wide area and so they help to spread pollen in plants far from the one they fed on. This process, as well as increasing biodiversity and continuity of the species, also increase the resilience of wildflowers, considering that genetic variation is a good weapon against pest disease. Nonetheless, butterflies act also as pest removal in some area, keeping plant populations healthy.

Moving on, as well as pollination, butterflies have a very important role for being food for other animals. Many species of birds and mice feed on butterflies. If they were to disappear, the effect on the ecosystem could affect even at trophic levels. This is because it has been demonstrated that nearly ⅔ of invertebrates are connected to butterflies in the food chain. The presence of butterflies is an indicator of a healthy and balanced ecosystem, while their disappearance could trigger the so-called “butterfly effect”, mining on other species.

Protecting this insect is a vital target that each one of us should aim to reach: as it is always the case, insects are affected by pesticides and climate change. In our daily life, we should simply make ethical choices. I will never stop stressing on the point of the importance of our grocery: buy organic, do not waste. A very simple binomial that could save species and the environment.

Did you take part in the Big Butterfly Count? Let us know in the comment and don’t forget to Stay Green!

Last week summary

3 – 9 August

People across UK are enjoying plenty of sunlight and great weather. They are reversing into parks and seaside locations to make the most out of this COVID-19 summer. However, it is strictly important that people understand that they need to take their litter home, as claimed by district councils on this article by the Guardian.

Read the article -> Link.

The parched lands of Rajasthan, in India, has finally saw an end on the drought of their rivers. This goal was accomplished by the local community, by imitating the ecosystem management techniques of the beavers. Now they face some hostility with the local government, example of when the needs of the public and the politicians are crossing their path.

Read the article -> Link.

In another post, we talked about how we were complying with the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. A new study has found that, if we decide to invest in a Green Recovery for our economy after the global pandemic, we could benefit from an additional 0.3 ℃ decrease in global temperature by 2050.

Read the article -> Link.

The Republic of Congo managed to pass a new law to reinforce existing policies for the management of its tropical forest, hotspot of biodiversity in the green belt of Africa. The code of changes was developed during the past eight years in partnership with ClientEarth in order to propose new forest management practice that do not interfere with the lives of the many indigenous tribes living in the forest.

Read the article -> Link.

Coffee: a sustainable drink?

Undoubtedly, coffee is one of the most common beverages consumed by human beings daily. The origin of this habit are remote and often forgotten but the pleasure of a hot cup of coffee in the morning has been delighting us for centuries now. Does this drink imply the environment? Let’s find out, as always, together.

Photo by Igor Haritanovich on Pexels.com

From bean to cup

Coffee is a particular plant that enjoys plenty of sunlight. Not surprisingly, it grows only at tropical latitudes, between the tropic of Cancer and the tropic of Capricorn (respectively 23.5° N and 23.5° S). After being planted, the first harvest of coffee beans usually happens after 5 years of growth. During these 5 years, farmers have to look after the plants, make sure pests and diseases are kept at bay, investing money while waiting for their first revenue.

Speaking of revenues, the coffee industry is the second most-traded commodity, after oil. However, out of the estimated $60bn per year generated, 10% is earned by farmers, who often are paid back all the time and risks they took. Investing always comes with a risk: common practices of preventing lose, such as differentiating, do not apply to this sector: farmers can decide to grow different crops, different techniques, but eventually, the only product they will try to sell are coffee beans.

To summarize a very intricated chain from bean to cup, here is the journey of coffee (many intermediate steps have been removed to keep it simple).

FarmCoffee beans are picked and washed
MillCoffee beans are dried and processed
ExporterCoffee beans are graded and stored while waiting for a buyer (often overseas)
FreightCoffee beans are shipped to the destination
ImporterCoffee beans are inspected before being delivered to customers 
RoasterCoffee beans are roasted, packaged and delivered to customers (supermarket, coffee shops, restaurant)
RetailThe final product (coffee) is sold to customers
Stages of coffee production: form bean to cup

The social impact of coffee

Before going into the environmental impact of the industry of coffee it is worth mentioning the social impact that this popular drink has. Like in many other industries, the price of coffee fluctuates based on supply and demand. In this uncontrolled market, some unexpected catastrophes have happened in the last century. When supply is low, many farmers from poor countries see an opportunity of making money because of high prices for demand and so they rush into redesigning their farms to dedicate them completely to coffee production.

After a decade or so, once the plants start to produce beans regularly, the demand will lower, and so the price per kilo of coffee beans, resulting in increasing level of poverty in parts of the planet that already have a lower index of GDP. So, as it is often the case, decisions and habits of consumers of one side of the world have strong implications on the quality of life in less fortunate parts of the planet. After a catastrophic fall in prices in the early ‘90s, schemes such as FairTrade developed: their goal is to establish a direct relationship between farmers and retailer so they can get a fairer price for their products and buyers can monitor the production and processes more closely. More about it here.

Coffee beans in an Indonesian farm. The beans are initially green and turn red once they’re ready for harvest. The will be washed and dried before getting the iconic brown colour. Picture by Gianluca Di Marco.

Environmental impact of coffee

Coming back to the environmental aspect, what could be the major implications for our planet caused by the coffee industry?

Given the long journey from the plant to our cup, it could come naturally to think about the embedded emissions of the whole freight. However, coffee is a product that is (probably) never travelling by plane and it can be stored for a long period of time, therefore it can easily be included in the list of tropical treats that, in a low carbon future, we could keep enjoying.

But, as it is always the case in agriculture, the main issues are recurring and are the following: deforestation, landscape modification, excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides.

WWF estimated that 2.5 million acres of forest have been cleared in central America for coffee farming. The social impact of coffee in rural communities is huge, often is the only source of potential income, therefore villagers in poor countries try to maximise the profits by increasing the number of crops cultivated. To do so, they need the space occupied by the largest carbon storage of the planet: the Amazon basin.

Landscape modification occurs because of the change in the techniques of coffee farming. I had the opportunity of visiting a few coffee plantations in Indonesia and they were all respecting the “old” (more appropriate to say the “real”) way of farming: they let the plant grow in something that resembles a huge group of bushes and they did not clear the way to make space for machines: farmers were walking around these bushes and when the time came they were hand-picking coffee beans. This farm setting not only respected the natural cycle of the plant but also encouraged biodiversity: the plantations are full of insects and animals, that are able to find food and shelter in this thick labirinth. I also believe that such dense vegetation offers also some climate mitigation in this particularly hot belt: I always visited them during the hottest time of the day but when entering the plantation it was easy to notice the freshness, something that resembles a walk in a deep forest on a summer day.

On the other hand, modern plantation, as well as clearing forests to make space for crops, also remove the shade provided by these trees, leaving the plant in full sunlight to encourage and accelerate speed. 

The excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides is a direct consequence of biodiversity loss. I do not know which are the potential parasites of coffee plants but I am sure that trough evolution, coffee plants have developed defences against these attacks. And, like most of the plants, the pesticides used by them are insects, fungi or animals that are attracted because they feed on the parasite that is feeding on the plant itself. I really don’t think it is smart to use chemicals to keep away parasites that are attacking the plant only because we removed vegetation that provided life opportunity to natural predators of these pests. The best solution, as always, would just be to let nature be, harvest a bit less but better.

I don’t want to pass the idea that farmers are bad people: they most certainly do that to provide for their family that usually live in unstable and poor condition. In a sustainable future, I see people who don’t need to maximise profits because of hunger by depleting the natural environment: these people will be educated and the food production will be shared more evenly. Once again: we have food, we just don’t share it properly.

Can we change this trend?

But before that, we can still play our part. I will never stop insisting on how much difference we can make as individuals and consumers. DO NOT BUY COFFEE WITHOUT A CERTIFICATE. If it has a certificate, dig deeper, check if the producer is involved in some kind of schemes to help farmers. If we support a sustainable market among unsustainable choices, the future will be made of sustainable products. Do not be scared of spending some extra money on that: when there is a new discovery it is usually affordable by wealthy people. By purchasing these goods, they fund research aimed at making the product more affordable to the general public so producers sell more and more people have this product available. If we spend some more on products that are cruelty-free, do not travel by air and are organic, we will finance this market, hoping it will be the major and more accessible market in the future.

Last week summary

27 July – 2 August 2020

European Safary Company has interviewed Mario Cipollone, team leader of Rewilding Apennines. Plenty of reasons to check this out. First, Mario works with his team, on the mountains of central Italy, across the region of Marche and Abruzzo. Rewilding Apennines is a project that aims to increase biodiversity and preserve species in this fragile area, increasingly affected by human activity. The concept of eco-tourism, in the form of financing conservation projects through sustainable and educational exploration of these areas are a key aspect of how Mario, but many more, are doing their bit to preserve natural beauties. 

Read the article -> >Link.

Have you ever wondered about trees lifespan? How old can a tree “grow”? Hard to say, studies shows how a tree could last longer in deep forests rather than in a public garden, being the own of its kind. However, I found quite interesting the article published on The Guardian about the Methuselah tree, in California, which last week was dated to be nearly 5000 years old.

Read the article -> Link.

Countries across Europe, having passed the first outbreak of the pandemic COVID-19, have begun to plan for the future, in order to boost their economies. In the UK, the population is loudly asking for a green recovery,  not only to revitalize jobs and incomes, but also to preserve the planet. Apart from the 2030 national and international goals, it appears that the UK population is becoming increasingly aware of the challenges of climate change: why don’t we all start to consider and assess the impact of food production? Can you play your part? Inside track provided a list of 5 thing we could all do together, as well as a recap of the political agenda of the last and next years

Read the article -> Link.

Could we possibly achieve net-zero emissions by keeping the power supply stable? Can solar and wind energy fuel an energy intensive planet such as Earth? They could but the transition would be likely to require some time, during which we would be still burning fossil fuels (also to have energy to produce solar panels, what a paradox). However, even though we didn’t grasp yet the exact way, hydrogen could be the answer to our problems. The only one? It could, unfortunately. Carbonbrief, quoting a study made by the National Grid, claimed that the UK can only meet its targets of net-zero emissions by 2050 by switching to hydrogen.

Read the article -> Link.

Book of the month – Feral

Happy August everyone! Our monthly appointment with the “Book of the month” comes back today.

Book cover

This month the book I would like to propose is titled Feral – Rewilding the land, sea and human life, by George Monbiot.

The world “feral” may stimulate different reactions in people, depending on what it refers to. For plants and animals, a feral species is one that descends from domesticated species but then goes on living in the wild. Similarly, a feral child is one who was brought up in an environment without human contacts: experiments, brutalities and everything monstrous you can think of make their way into this example.

In this book, the concept of feral is applied to the way we approach and engage with the natural environment. The author does not spare to share moments of his professional and personal life, showing how his career and his passions have made him become a more “wild” human being.

A concept that I think about every day ever since I had the pleasure of reading this book is the “environmental boredom”. George Monbiot explains how his interaction with the natural world made him become “bored” of nature: to explain this, the author proposes a series of example that will show you how, even though living in Wales provides you many possibilities to actively engage with the environment, he soon realised that he needed much more.

I believe many of us will find comfort in these words and reading through the pages will be much like a self-reflection exercise on how we try to lead green-lifestyles but our actual connection to Nature itself is resolved with a few picnics every now and then.

After the initial self-reflection on these themes, the author goes on explaining the concept of rewilding, a concept that lately (probably also because of this book and some other) is becoming increasingly popular, at least in Europe.

In a few words, rather than “managing” an ecosystem, the best way to encourage biodiversity blooms in certain areas would be to let them be and in some cases that would require us to reintroduce some species that have been removed for human safety/needs.

Example for terrestrial ecosystems in the UK is the reintroduction of wolves in the forests. Wolves would keep under control the number of deers, reducing in return their grazing and the consumption of vegetation. All the possible side effects are taken into consideration and some successful rewilding projects with the reintroduction of wolves in Europe are presented in support of the thesis.

Sheep grazing, the importance of beavers, land management, agricultural policy, rewilding of the Sea: you will find everything in this that looks more like a manual than a book, for a vision of a wilder but richer future for our Lands.

Get the book on Amazon (but consider buying it locally)

Get the book on eBay (But consider buying it locally)

Did you miss our previous appointments? Catch up here -> Link.

What’s the carbon wedges approach?

Climate change is a complicated issue. Its reasons are to be found across different disciplines and become clear only when approaching them with a wide knowledge of multiple topics. This could discourage many of us but is there a way to make this approach simpler? Let’s find out, as always, together.

Photo by Marcin Jozwiak on Pexels.com

Explanation

In case you didn’t notice, the Earth is getting warmer. In 2014, the International Panel on Climate Change published a report claiming that “each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth’s surface than any preceding decades before 1850”.

The two main factors that influence the temperature of any planet of the solar system are their distance from the Sun and the composition of their atmosphere. The reason why our Planet is getting warmer is that, as a consequence of human activity, we increased the level of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in the atmosphere, resulting in less sunlight that is reflected back in the space. The increasing sunlight is “trapped” in our atmosphere because GHG make the atmosphere layer’s thicker and so the Earth’s temperature increases.

So far everything seems easy to comprehend. The problem starts when we try to assess which human activities are contributing to increased levels of GHG. 

To summarize some of them here is a list of the ones you might be more familiar with:

  • CO2 emissions (from cars, manufacturers and everything you can think of that requires burning of fossil fuels).
  • Food waste.
  • Agriculture and livestock.
  • Deforestation.

The list is much wider, that was just to give you a general idea of what we are talking about. So, considering that each one of these human activities has several implications, how do we deal with them all at once, in order to tackle the main issue?

A solution was provided in 2004 by two American academics Steve Pacala and Robert Socolow. Their idea, named “the carbon wedges approach”, aims to break down a complex subject such as climate change into smaller wedges, all part of the big problem, to deal with them separately. Apparently, the name came up because when representing the idea on a chart, they seem to take down the temperature increase by wedges.

They recognised that each solution would take time and effort, both from institutions and private citizens (which, in my opinion, will always play the bigger part: complaining does not get you anywhere, acting does. I’m trying with this blog, what about you?)

Some math

They took as a target the main goal of trying to reduce the Earth’s temperature increase to 2℃ by 2100. They also calculated that each wedge would bring a reduction of CO2 emissions of 1 Gt in 50 years (assuming that emissions rate do not sharply increase in different sectors. For example, if we stop flying but we increase the number of cars in the street without finding an affordable replacement for diesel and petrol, it is not going to be a smart solution).

Example of carbon wedges approach. The flat path is the equivalent of applying 7 wedges, more are needed to further decrease CO2 emissions in order to meet our targets.

At a current rate of growth of GHG emissions, if we don’t intervene, by 2100 the Earth’s temperature is expected to increase by ≃4℃. If we apply 7 wedges, reducing in 50 years time GHG emissions by 350 Gt, we would have by the end of the century a situation of +2.7℃, which is the same we would face if GHG emissions wouldn’t increase at all and would stay stable at the current rate.

The approach shows that if we really want to meet our target and limit the Earth’s temperature increase, 7 more wedges are needed, to bring down the emissions to 700 Gt in the next 50 years: in that scenario, the Earth’s temperature would still increase but only by 1-2℃, which according to the scientific community should not lead to catastrophic scenarios.

The mathematic is basic, the resources seem to be available, so what is the problem?

Why do we avoid the problem?

The problem is that we have a lifespan of 60-90 years and we are not able to see or imagine further than that. Why would a middle-aged man care about the next century? Even having children seems not to work on them. The pleas of many young environmentalists of last year did not bring any change, if not in the popularity of a few of them: they got meetings with the UN, a widespread media coverage, they probably made many of their age aware of these issues, but concretely nothing has happened, besides of some more promises or plans that from time to time we hear from national governments. 

If we wait that our generation grows old enough to be in the position of making decisions, it would probably take us 20 more years or so, and this will all be precious time that we are wasting.

Also, WE need to make some decisions: enough with videos of polar bears and ice sheets, we all know they are starving because of us, but I would not swap anyone of my species to save a bear if I had to choose: not because I dislike them, simply because my primordial instinct makes me care more for my fellow relatives than other species.

Think about trees: they care about them, fungi, bees and a few insects. They do not fight for our rights, they simply get along with life, and if you would know how much struggle a tree has to go through to fully develop you would stop complaining about not having money to buy a new iPhone.

Proposals

Coming back to the main point, each one of the wedges represents a problem and must be matched with a solution. I named 4, so here are my proposals for them.

  1. CO2 emissions. Easy but hard. It is probably the easiest of them: we need to leave the fossil fuels in the ground and replace them with renewable sources of energy. And I talk about energy production: an electric car won’t be enough as long as we produce electricity by burning coal. The hard part is that probably the richest and wealthiest corporations of the Planet won’t be really happy to end their business just like that. Should we compensate them by handing them over the monopoly of renewable energy? (In my opinion, no, but that is up to each one of you).
  2. Food waste. This is where you are the only one who can do something. Grocery is a serious thing if you think about the implications. In a sustainable world, you eat only seasonal and locally produced food, with a few exceptions of fruits and vegetables that are not energy-intensive to produce and can be shipped by boat (bananas, pineapple etc). Most importantly, do not throw away food: the World Health Organization provides an extensive list of how to spot food not safe to eat so next time you see a black spot on your carrot, for example, peal it, don’t bin it.
  3. Agriculture and livestock. Another easy but hard task. First of all, we need to reduce the ruminants livestock: check this post in case you missed it. We should abandon monoculture in favour of crop rotation: it could provide less food but also less spread of crop-diseases. Besides, we don’t need to produce more food, we just need to distribute it more evenly and waste less, there’s plenty out there.
  4. Deforestation. Carbon release. Widespread fires. Avalanches in mountain areas. Biodiversity loss. Is there anything else to mention? (There is, the real question would be “Are you that stupid that these are not enough to get it?”).

There is plenty to do and apparently also plenty of time. Let’s be clear: if we don’t do anything, the rivers won’t dry out (at least not by 2100), the ice sheets could disappear to reveal new continents to explore, we will certainly have more severe weather condition. The problem is at the current time we are still on time to fix it: it will come the time when it will be too late and we will be long gone but our kids will be out there. In case you are concerned but still not willing to take actions in your everyday life, I would suggest you not to have children, spare them that sorrow.

Do you have any more suggestions to reduce our GHG emissions? Let us in the comments and don’t forget to Stay Green!

Last week summary

Week 20 – 26 July 2020

Apple has come forward and hit the headlines of many newspaper by claiming its carbon neutrality by 2030. In another post, we analyzed how the UN nations were performing with their 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and here a silicon valley’s giant has made its move. Apple claim that will build more efficient devices that last longer, recycle every part of them, switch to renewable energy sources and much more. Will they lead the environmental future, as well as the technological one? Are they somehow connected?

Read the article -> Link.

Did you need another reason to be concerned about your carbon footprint? Researchers have confirmed divers’ found from 2011 in Antarctica, a sea-bed methane leak. Methane is a greenhouse gas 28 times stronger than carbon dioxide and any leak into our atmosphere has to be considered threatening. Bear in mind that Antarctica is a very uncomfortable region of our Planet and as of today it remains widely unexplored. Could there be more leaks out there?

Read the article -> Link.

How can museums plan for the future, in order to be more attractive to a generation that is decreasingly attracted by it and be more sustainable? Chief Executive of Horniman Museums and Gardens Nick Merriman explored the topic in the Ecologist.

Read the article -> Link.

A new study has been conducted on the polar bears food supply, very much impacted also by the ice surface in Poles, increasingly reducing as a consequence of climate change. With this new model, the animal is likely to see its condition reduced to a no-return point by the beginning of next century. Are we still on time to prevent this? Are our effort enough?

Read the article -> Link.

Are ruminants evil?

Ever since we started to understand the impact we are having on our Planet, many reasons have come to light. Some seemed more obvious than others, but what struck me most at the beginning was the impact that ruminants have on the environment. Are they evil? Let’s find out, as always, together.

Ruminants are mammals that feed mainly on vegetation (wild grass and similar). They comprehend a few hundred different species, both wild and domestic. The reason why we called them so is that their digestive system requires them to chew multiple times. This happens because their stomach is not able to break down at once all the food they eat, and so they belch out some of it and then chew it again and again. This process of continuous chewing of food is called rumination, hence the name ruminants.

Ruminants include a wide range of animals, the most popular being cattle, sheep and goats. Only these animals provide many services to their own bosses, humans: they are source of food, source of dairy products, clothing (at least they used to be), they were used in agriculture (even though our favourite have always been donkeys and mules). Some wild species of ruminants made us somehow soft to them, or probably they were too hard to hunt and kill, and so we let them be free, or captured and kept as hostages in our zoos: examples are giraffes and gazelles (there are some tribal communities in Sub-Saharan Africa who still hunt them, but that wouldn’t make this post mainstream according to the way of thinking “We’re right, they’re wrong”, and so I’ll leave it to each one of you to find out more about them).

Coming back to where we started, are ruminants evil? In particular, are they bad for the environment?

They are, but whose fault is? In case you are wondering, it’s our, mine and yours.

The main reasons why ruminants are not eco-friendly are the following: 

  • When they ruminate they belch out methane.
  • We feed them on soya.
  • The impact they have on the soil they graze on.

Methane

In another post, we talked about the impact of methane produced by leftovers of food from a corporate event. In that story, we focused on the concept of embedded emissions, which applies to this one as well.

Methane is an embedded emission of ruminants. When they chew, they belch out the cud, which is the part of food their stomach didn’t process yet, and methane. In case you didn’t know, methane is a greenhouse gas which has a much higher impact of more common ones, such as CO2 (the ratio is 28:1, making methane 28 times more effective than CO2 in the same quantity).

There are countless studies that will show you the impact of methane emissions produced by ruminant livestock. I would like to propose one made by Chang, J., Peng, S., Ciais, P. et al. Revisiting enteric methane emissions from domestic ruminants and their CH4. Nat Commun 10, 3420 (2019), available here.

“Livestock production is the largest anthropogenic source in the global methane budget. Enteric fermentation from ruminants dominates this source and accounts for the emission of 87–97 Tg CH4 yr−1 during 2000–2009. Livestock manure management has a smaller contribution. Cattle, buffaloes, goats, and sheep are the main ruminant livestock types emitting CH4 and altogether represent 96% of the global enteric fermentation source”

Soya

Another embedded emission of ruminants is what they feed on. In natural circumstances, they would feed on grass. However intensive livestock, especially of cattle, feed the animals on soya, in order to make them grow more and faster.

Soya itself wouldn’t be a problem but, as mentioned in another post, the issue is that in order to meet the global demand of soya needed (which is 7% for human consumption and 70% for livestock feeding) we have to increase the amount of land intended for soya production by clearing forests.
The results are stunning: according to WWF, even though the production is ongoing a process to try to reduce deforestation and direct emission of soybean cultivation, the impact is still “greater than sustainable”.

Soil

Here we face a two-sided coin. On one side academics have observed that grazing provide benefits to certain ecosystems because the cattle help fields getting ploughed. However, the main view about the subjects is that ruminants, in such a high number, are contributing to the depletion of the fields they graze on, endangering different species and contributing to biodiversity loss.

Honestly, who cares about them right?

Unfortunately, nobody does but the problem is that often certain species that we don’t care about, such a small and sleazy insects, play a vital role in maintaining an ecosystem alive, either by providing a source of protein/food for bigger animals and by removing hostile species from the soil, just to name a few.

On top of that, ruminants deplete vegetation, contributing to the soil erosion on what they graze on. Often, ruminants are seen on hills or mountainsides. The effect they have after few years of grazing in big heirs is devastating: not only they are likely to consume the grass, but by doing so they contribute also in making that mountain slope more dangerous for us (less tress = more avalanche).

How can we make things better? I think the western world should be a role model. Countries such as China are only recently embracing our culture of burgers and fast food, so after having suffered famine for many decades, I would feel uneasy in pointing my fingers towards them. I believe there should be a global effort in trying to reduce the ruminants products (in every form) that we consume daily.

What can we do?

What can we do in our everyday life? I am no one to give suggestions to other people, but I’ll just share what I personally do just to give you some ideas.

  1. Rotate cheeses. I love cheese, but I realised that my shopping habits weren’t sustainable because I was always buying the same cheeses in my weekly shop in the same quantities. One day, opening my fridge, I realised that, even though they are all delicious, I probably didn’t need to have Cheddar, Gorgonzola, Brie, Cottage cheese and Parmesan at the same time (it was really hard to give up on some of them, but I survived).
  2. Ditch fast food. It is a simple but effective rule. If you care about yourself, try to reduce to the minimum visiting your local McDonald’s. I found it quite effective to eat in fast food takeaways only when I get drunk because I wouldn’t be able to cook otherwise. If you realise that even in that case you are still over-visiting fast-food restaurants, then you might have an issue with alcohol and that is something you should think about.
  3. Eat less meat. Once again, I love meat. I am by no means even close in being a vegetarian. But, if you can, try to avoid eating ruminants (lamb, beef) on a daily base choosing instead pork or chicken. Also, make sure the meat you buy doesn’t come from intensive livestock, otherwise, as it is often the case, you would try to solve a problem by creating another one.

Conclusion

In the end, do not get sad. It is our lifestyle that is carbon-hungry, you are simply following the life you were taught to live. Maybe, it has come the time that we reorganize ourselves and pass onto future generations new ways of living, some that would make us enjoy life at his full while not depleting the natural environment. Also, this change should come soon: we are not likely into establishing a colony on another planet before depleting the one we live on, so less Star Wars and more empathy.

Do you have any suggestions for ditching takeaways when you’re drunk? Let us know in the comments and don’t forget to stay Green!